Τρίτη, 31 Ιανουαρίου 2017

Η Γεωπολιτική του Καναδά και ο Μικρός Οικονομικός Εμφύλιος στο Εσωτερικό του

Ο Καναδάς είναι η δεύτερη μεγαλύτερη χώρα στον κόσμο, πίσω μόνο από την Ρωσία, αλλά έχει μόλις 35 εκατομμύρια κατοίκους, οι οποίοι στην συντριπτική τους πλειοψηφία ζούνε στο νότιο τμήμα της χώρας, στα σύνορα με τις ΗΠΑ. Το μεγαλύτερο τμήμα του Καναδά είναι μία παγωμένη ερημιά, αλλά πολύ πλούσια σε πρώτες ύλες.

Χάρτης 1



Ο Καναδάς είναι παραδοσιακός σύμμαχος των ΗΠΑ, αλλά διαφορές για την ΑΟΖ του δεν έχει μόνο με την Ρωσία αλλά και με τις ΗΠΑ.

Χάρτης 2 Ενεργειακά Αποθέματα Αρκτικού Ωκεανού (Γκρι)



Τα τεράστια αποθέματα σχιστόλιθου του Καναδά βρίσκονται στην Αλμπέρτα, εγκλωβισμένα από τα Rocky Mountains στην πλευρά του Ειρηνικού, και εγκλωβισμένα από τα Απαλάχια Όρη στην πλευρά του Ατλαντικού. Αυτό δεν εξυπηρετεί καθόλου την βιομηχανία ενέργειας του Καναδά, η οποία μπορεί να βρίσκει διέξοδο μόνο μέσω των ΗΠΑ.

Υπάρχει φυσικά και η βιομηχανία του Καναδά, η οποία είναι ένα σημαντικό μέγεθος, αλλά πολύ μικρό για να απορροφήσει τα αποθέματα της Αλμπέρτα. Αλλά εκτός από τις Οροσειρές των Απαλαχίων και των Rocky, το έδαφος του Καναδά είναι γενικότερα προβληματικό για κατασκευή αγωγών. Εξάλλου ο Καναδάς είναι μία χώρα με μόλις 1.5 τρις ΑΕΠ, πολύ μικρότερο από τα 19 σχεδόν τρις ΑΕΠ των ΗΠΑ.

Χάρτης Rocky Mountains – Appalachean Mountains



Αντίθετα με ότι συμβαίνει με τον Καναδά, τα αποθέματα των ΗΠΑ, που βρίσκονται επίσης ανάμεσα στα Rocky και τα Απαλάχια, είναι ότι πρέπει για τις μεγάλες βιομηχανικές ζώνες των ΗΠΑ, που βρίσκονται κυρίως στο εσωτερικό τμήμα των ΗΠΑ ανάμεσα από τις οροσειρές Rocky και Appalachian.

Χάρτης Σχιστολιθικά Αποθέματα Καναδά-ΗΠΑ



Επομένως το πετρέλαιο και το αέριο του Καναδά πρέπει να ταξιδεύει με τρένα για να φτάσει στις βιομηχανικές ζώνες των ΗΠΑ, και αυτό τα καθιστά μη ανταγωνιστικά, ή μειώνει πολύ τα περιθώριο κέρδους τους. Αυτό το πρόβλημα όπως έχω ξαναπεί θα το λύσει σε κάποιον βαθμό ο αγωγός Keystone Pipeline, ο οποίος θα βγάλει σε ανταγωνιστικές τιμές τα αποθέματα του Καναδά στις ΗΠΑ και στον Κόλπο του Μεξικού, και αυτό θίγει τα συμφέροντα των “οικολόγων”.

Τον οποίο αγωγό ο Τραμπ όπως είχε πει προεκλογικά ενέκρινε αμέσως μόλις εξελέγη, με αποτέλεσμα να κηρύξει τον πόλεμο στους “οικολόγους”. Αλλά ενώ θα περίμενε κανείς να είναι ευχαριστημένοι οι Καναδοί από τον Τραμπ, κάτι τέτοιο δεν ισχύει.

Ο Justin Trudeau, ο θολοκουλτιουριάρης πρωθυπουργός του Καναδά, είναι γιος του επίσης σοσιαλιστή Pierre Trudeau, ο οποίος ήταν κολλητός του Φιντέλ Κάστρο. Ο Δυτικός Καναδάς αγόραζε παραδοσιακά πολύ πετρέλαιο από τους σοσιαλιστές δικτάτορες της Λατινικής Αμερικής, και πολλοί πολιτικοί του Καναδά έχουν στενούς δεσμούς με τους Λατινοαμερικάνους δικτάτορες. Θυμάστε ότι όταν πέθανε ο Φιντέλ βγήκε ο Τριντό έπλεξε το εγκώμιο του Φιντέλ, και ξεσηκωθήκανε στις ΗΠΑ και τον Κανδά οι Ρεπουμπλικάνοι. Βλέπε πχ τα Twits των δύο υποψηφίων Ρεπουμπλικάνων.

Εικόνα Twits



Ο Φιντέλ όπως είπα ήταν κολλητός του πατέρα του Τριντό, επίσης πρωθυπουργού του Καναδά, είχε πάει στην κηδεία του κλπ. Βλέπε CBC “On Fidel Castro, Justin Trudeau sounds like his father's son”, Νοέμβριος 2016.

Πριν λίγες μέρες, όταν ο Τραμπ είπε ότι για 90 ημέρες δεν θα μπαίνουν στις ΗΠΑ κάτοικοι 7 χωρών που έχουν πολύ στενή σχέση με την τρομοκρατία, είτε είναι Μουσουλμάνοι είτε Χριστιανοί, είτε οτιδήποτε άλλο, ο Τριντό είπε ότι θα τους παίρνει ο Καναδάς, ξεκινώντας έναν πόλεμο στον Τραμπ. Και από τον Καναδά θα μπορούν φυσικά να μπαίνουν στις ΗΠΑ γιατί υπάρχει ζώνη ελεύθερου εμπορίου. Εκτός και αν το αλλάξει ο Τραμπ και τους εξηγήσει το όνειρο.

Ο Τριντό είναι φανατικά υπέρ της αύξησης του Μουσουλμανικού πληθυσμού του Καναδά, είναι ο εκλεκτός των Λατίνων και της Μουσουλμανικής Αδελφότητας, και έχει ήδη πάρει πολλούς Σουνίτες από την Συρία στον Καναδά. Η Aljazeera, η αριστερή αντι-αμερικναική εφημερίδα του Εμίρη του Κατάρ, στάζει μέλι όταν γράφει για τον Trudeau. Οι Αμερικανοί, γράφει η Aljazeera, ονειρεύονται τον Καναδά του Trideau μετά την νίκη Τραμπ. Βλέπε “Americans dream of Canada after Trump”, Δεκέμβριος 2016. Αυτά που λένε και οι κνίτες των δικών μας ΜΜΕ.

Ο Justin Trudeau είπε μάλιστα ότι ο Καναδάς δεν θα αλλάξει στάση απέναντι στην Κούβα ότι και να κάνει ο Τραμπ. Βλέπε CBC “Canada won't change stance on Cuba even with Trump in White House: Trudeau”, Νοέμβριος 2016.

Στην Alberta του Καναδά πολλοί κάτοικοι βλέπουν θετικά μία προσάρτηση της πολιτείας στις ΗΠΑ, ώστε να μπορούνε να πουλάνε το πετρέλαιο τους και το αέριο τους χωρίς δασμούς, και να αποφύγουν τους τεράστιους φόρους που ζητάνε οι αριστεροί Καναδοί. Όπως η Καλιφόρνια είναι το πάτημα των Κινέζων και των Μεξικάνων εναντίον των ΗΠΑ, έτσι και η Alberta μπορεί να στραφεί προς τις ΗΠΑ για να αποφύγει τους αριστερούς Καναδούς που της ζητούν όλο και μεγαλύτερους φόρους, πολλές φορές λαμβάνοντας ανταλλάγματα από τους Ισλαμιστές και τους Λατίνους.

Επίσης, άλλες περιοχές του Καναδά, εκτός Αλμπέρτα, που έχουν βιομηχανική παραγωγή, βλέπουν αρνητικά τις εξαγωγές του πετρελαίου και του αερίου της Αλμπέρτα, γιατί ενισχύει το Καναδικό δολάριο και δυσκολεύει τις εξαγωγές τους. Π.Χ τις εξαγωγές της Καναδικής αρτοβιομηχανίας, στην οποία ο Τραμπ θέλει να βάλει και δασμούς δίνοντας της ένα χαστούκι.

Αν αγοράζεις πετρέλαιο από από την Βενεζουέλα, και ο συντελεστής φορολογίας είναι μικρός, και είσαι ο Τριντό, τότε λες στην Αλμπέρτα ότι θα της βάλεις πράσινο φόρο, ώστε να μην μπορεί να εξάγει πετρέλαιο και αέριο. Ή της λες ότι θα δεχτεί πολύ μεγαλύτερους φόρους. Αλλά ο Τριντό και η παρέα του γνωρίζουν ότι αν τους ζορίσουν πολύ στην Alberta μπορεί και αυτοί να ζητήσουν να γίνουν η 51η πολιτεία των ΗΠΑ. Είναι κάτι που προβλέπεται στο σύνταγμα του Καναδά. Οι επαρχίες έχουν μεγάλη αυτονομία. Υπάρχει ας πούμε ένας μικρός εμφύλιος ανάμεσα στην Αλμπέρτα και το Κεμπέκ του Τριντό.

Στο μεταξύ ο Τραμπ λέει ότι θα βάλει δασμούς στις εξαγωγές του Καναδά προς τις ΗΠΑ, και καλά θα κάνει, αφού οι Καναδοί συνεργάζονται με τους Λατίνους και τους Ισλαμιστές εναντίον των ΗΠΑ. Και στην χειρότερη περίπτωση η Αλμπέρτα μπορεί να γίνει η 51η πολιτεία των ΗΠΑ  όπως είπα.

Ο Τραμπ θέλει να βάλει δασμούς και στους Μεξικανούς και στους Καναδούς (NAFTA), και στους Κινέζους.

Χάρτης Κεμπέκ



Τέλος πάντων όμως, τον Καναδά μην τον βλέπετε σαν ένα φιλαράκι των ΗΠΑ. Ναι μεν Καναδάς και ΗΠΑ είναι σύμμαχοι, αλλά τα πράγματα είναι πιο σύνθετα, και βλέπετε τι κόντρα υπάρχει ανάμεσα στον Τραμπ και τον Τριντό. Βλέπετε και τις αριστερές τσούλες των Ελληνικών ΜΜΕ πως σκίζουν τα βρακιά τους για τον θολοκουλτουριάρη Τριντό. Και μην μου πείτε ότι είναι ωραίος. Αν δηλαδή ο Τραμπ ήταν ωραίος θα του πετούσαν οι τσούλες τα βρακιά τους? Όχι βέβαια.

Άρθρα

Aljazeera : Οι Αμερικανοί ονειρεύονται τον Καναδά του Justin Trudeau μετά την εκλογή Τραμπ
“Americans dream of Canada after Trump”, Δεκέμβριος 2016
22η, 23η, 24η Παράγραφος
Williams is not only fearful of Trump, but is also equally frightened by his incoming administration. Instead, she's now looking north for a political leader who better reflects her values: Canada's young Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau.
"I don't think you're going to get any more progressive than what he is," she said of Trudeau, 44, who, in his first year in office, has allowed the resettlement of more than 30,000 Syrian refugees in Canada, become the country's first prime minister to march in a gay pride parade, and who has installed a gender-equal administration.
"I think his age, his outlook, you know already the changes that he made. His cabinet is so diverse and he just seems to really want to take the country to another level. I think he's great. Nobody is as good as Obama, but he's as cool as it gets,"  Williams said.

Canada won't change stance on Cuba even with Trump in White House: Trudeau”, Νοέμβριος 2016
Canada won't change its decision to maintain diplomatic relations with Cuba, even if that stance is at odds with the man set to lead Canada's biggest trading partner, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said in Havana on Wednesday.
When asked about the U.S. embargo on Cuba, the election of Donald Trump and concerns about the future of Canada-Cuba relations, Trudeau repeatedly tried to calm curious Cuban university students he was addressing.

“On Fidel Castro, Justin Trudeau sounds like his father's son”, Νοέμβριος 2016
1η, 2η, 3η, 4η , 5η Παράγραφος
Alexandre Trudeau, writing a decade ago, fondly recalled the stature of Fidel Castro within the Trudeau household.
"When Michel was around eight years old, I remember him complaining to my mother that my older brother and I both had more friends than he did," Alexandre recalled in 2006. "My mother told him that, unlike us, he had the greatest friend of all: he had Fidel."
The older brother, of course, was Justin Trudeau.
In his piece for the Toronto Star, Alexandre recalled that Castro "had a special place" among his family's friends. There was a picture of him in the Trudeau family home — the Cuban dictator holding Michel, the youngest of Pierre and Margaret's three boys, in his arms.
It was Castro who gave Michel the lifelong nickname Miche during Pierre and Margaret's official visit to Cuba in 1976. On that trip, the prime minister found an intellectual sparring partner (and Margaret, according to historical accounts, found brief respite from her personal struggles with life in official Ottawa).
When Pierre Trudeau passed away in 2000, Castro attended the funeral as an honorary pallbearer.

“Liberal' Trudeau joins blood-soaked race for arms deals with Mideast despots”, Απρίλιος 2016
In a remarkable spectacle of money-grubbing over arms deals, this month saw a parade of Western leaders jettisoning any pretense of upholding vaunted “liberal values” to court despotic Mideast regimes.
Justin Trudeau, the Canadian prime minister who sent liberal hearts aflutter when he was elected in November, with his espousal of feminism among other progressive causes, is the latest Western leader to show where real priorities lie. Trudeau signed off on a $11 billion deal with Saudi Arabia to export armored vehicles to the blood-soaked repressive regime.

“The End of Canada?”

“In Canada’s economy there’s Alberta, and there’s everywhere else”, Ιούλιος 2014
The oil- and gas-rich western province of Alberta was responsible for all of Canada’s net employment growth over the past 12 months, adding 81,800 jobs while the rest of Canada lost 9,500. Alberta’s trade surplus, $7.4 billion in May, almost matched the deficit rung up everywhere else.
If growth trends over the past decade continue, Alberta would pass Quebec to become the country’s second-largest provincial economy in three years, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.
Alberta is already by far the strongest province economically, and higher oil prices will only exacerbate the regional split,” Benjamin Reitzes, a senior economist at BMO Capital Markets in Toronto, said in a telephone interview.
Alberta’s growing power is doing more than putting energy ahead of manufacturing exports such as Ontario’s cars and Quebec’s aircraft. It’s drawing tens of thousands of young people to the province, seeking energy jobs with some of the country’s highest salaries.
It’s also posing a challenge to policy makers: Oil wealth has led to a stronger Canadian dollar, squeezing Ontario and Quebec manufacturers. Canada’s central bank is keeping interest rates near historic lows, looking for a weaker currency to boost exports.
“We see a two-track economy,” Bank of Canada Governor Stephen Poloz said at a July 16 press conference after his decision to extend the longest interest-rate pause since the 1950s. Canada’s non-energy exports have disappointed, he said, holding back growth. At the same time, “energy exports have indeed been quite strong and we expect that to be a continuing trend.”
Manufacturing has been at the heart of Canada’s economy and government policy for decades, marked by a 1965 pact to establish a single market for autos between the U.S. and Canada, and a 1988 free trade agreement to wipe out tariffs on goods traded by the two nations, later expanded to include Mexico.
Today Prime Minister Stephen Harper, who represents a Calgary district in Parliament, says the world’s 11th-largest economy may see $650 billion of resource projects over the next decade, such as Enbridge Inc.’s $6.5 billion Northern Gateway pipeline, which won conditional approval last month. The project would take Alberta bitumen to the Pacific Coast, opening access to Asian markets and reducing Canada’s reliance on the U.S. for its crude exports. Producers are also waiting for President Barack Obama’s delayed review of TransCanada Corp.’s Keystone XL pipeline, which would bring Alberta oil to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries.
Even without those conduits, Alberta’s oil is powering growth. Calgary-based Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd. shares have returned 61% in the past year, compared with 24% for the benchmark Standard & Poor’s/TSX Composite Index, as the company benefits from increasing shipments of oil by rail.
“Continued expansion of oil and gas production has resulted in increased revenues,” Chief Operating Officer Keith Creel said on a July 17 earnings call. “Looking at the balance of 2014, we see strong fundamentals on the demand side.”
The unbalanced nature of the economy is reflected in the construction of Calgary skyscrapers, like Encana Corp.’s headquarters. It can also be seen in economic statistics. Alberta has been “effectively the lone driver” of recent housing starts, spurred by population growth that’s the highest in more than three decades, Bank of Montreal estimates. The province’s per capita gross domestic product will reach $88,000 next year, $35,000 more than the rest of Canada, Toronto- Dominion Bank economists predict.
Alberta will lead all other provinces as many sectors of the economy are performing well,” Arlene Kish, senior economist at Lexington, Massachusetts-based consulting firm IHS Global Insight, wrote in a July 16 report. Economic growth rates of 3.4% this year and 3.0% next year will be the strongest in Canada, she forecasts.
Alberta’s jobless rate was 4.9% in June and has averaged 5.4% over the last five years. That compares with Canada’s 7.1% rate in June, and five-year average of 7.5%.
“When you live in Alberta you have a sense of job security and of choice,” said Byrne Luft, vice president of operations for Manpower Canada in Toronto, who was raised in Edmonton and Calgary. Manpowergroup Inc. is a Milwaukee-based employment- services firm.
Alberta’s labor market has gone “from a very tight unemployment rate to an extremely acute, critical point,” Luft said by telephone. “They are really sitting at zero unemployment.”
More people moved to Alberta from other provinces than to any other area — about 27,700 in 2011-12, the latest year available — according to federal statistics agency. Since records began in 1976-77, Alberta has brought in a net 483,600 people from the rest of the country, while Quebec saw an outflow of 465,400 people over that period. Ontario saw a net inflow of 63,200 people, about 13% of Alberta’s total.
Alberta’s coffers are being filled by oil royalties, with output from the province’s oil sands set to more than double to 4.1 million barrels a day by 2025 from 2013, according to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. The value of exports of crude oil derived from bitumen has almost doubled to $81.7 billion in 2013 from $42.8 billion in 2009, according to Statistics Canada data. That’s helped the province turn a deficit, forecast at $2 billion for the year ended March 31, into a $755 million surplus.
In Ontario, Finance Minister Charles Sousa’s plan to take until the 2017-18 fiscal year to eliminate its $12.5 billion deficit led Moody’s Investors Service to cut the outlook on the province’s Aa2-rated debt to negative on July 2.
Alberta’s bonds due in seven to 10 years yielded 2.63% on July 21, compared with 2.79% for similar- maturity Ontario debt, according to Bank of America Corp. data. Alberta pays 60 basis points above comparable federal debt to borrow money for seven to 10 years, the lowest spread among Canada’s 10 provinces, the data show. Investors demand 80 basis points from Ontario and 81 basis points from Quebec to hold debt of that maturity.
Ontario has been hurt by cutbacks at automakers such General Motors Co. and weakness at smartphone maker BlackBerry Ltd. Quebec has struggled with with Montreal-based Bombardier Inc. seeing delays with its new CSeries jet and lumber and paper mills closing.
To be sure, Canada’s economy still benefits from a broad array of commodity exports and is underpinned by the world’s safest banks headquartered in Toronto.
Canada is becoming a tale of two cities, Toronto and Calgary,” said Jack Mintz of the University of Calgary’s School of Public Policy, who used to teach at University of Toronto. “I don’t think growth in Alberta means other places are worse off,” he said. Ontario has lost manufacturing competitiveness to China, the U.S. and Mexico, he said.
Calgary rated higher than Toronto in a review of prosperity across 24 global cities conducted by the Toronto Region Board of Trade. Calgary was second on superior growth for income and jobs, along with lower taxes, and Toronto was in third place. Paris topped the list.
Alberta’s rise both marks a revolution for Canada’s economy as well as a throwback to the days when the country, then a collection of colonies, relied on the fur trade. Canada remains dependent on exports of such staple goods.
While such reliance brings economic risks, oil as a staple export has more staying power than the beaver pelts that once fed Europe’s fashion industry, said CIBC World Markets economist Peter Buchanan by telephone from Toronto. “Fur hats come and go in fashion, but it’s harder to do without oil.”

Financial Times : Η Καναδική παραγωγή πετρελαίου δυσκολεύεται να διοχετευτεί στις αγορές, και υπάρχουν και πολλοί επικριτές για τις επιπτώσεις αυτής της παραγωγής στο περιβάλλον. Η μεταφορά του πετρελαίου με τρένα είναι ακριβή και δεν είναι ελκυστική όταν οι τιμές πετρελαίου είναι χαμηλές. Οι περιβαλλοντικές οργανώσεις πιέζουν τον Justin Trudeau να άρει την υποστήριξη του στον αγωγό πετρελαίου Keystone Pipeline, ο οποίος θα μεταφέρει το πετρέλαιο της Alberta στις ΗΠΑ.
“Pipeline problems hinder Canada’s oil exports”
Companies producing crude in the oil sands of western Canada are being constrained from growing any further by a shortage of pipeline capacity to ship oil out of the region.
Uncertainty over routes to market for any increased production has become an additional deterrent to investment in the oil sands, compounding the effect of the slump in oil prices, according to environmental campaigners, who want to stop the region’s production growing.
Campaigners have long criticised Alberta’s oil sands, which generate more greenhouse gas emissions than some conventional oil and gas sites due to the extra energy required to extract and process the heavy crude.
As President Barack Obama’s administration continues to procrastinate over a decision on whether to approve the controversial Keystone XL project to take diluted heavy oil from Alberta to the US, other planned export routes out of the province are also facing delays and political obstruction in Canada.
Rail transport, the other option for transporting Alberta’s oil, is unattractive while prices are low.
After steady growth in Alberta’s oil production, the region’s existing pipeline infrastructure is just about full, and output is still rising, according to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the industry body.
In August, benchmark Western Canadian Select crude fell to only $23 per barrel; less than half the price of internationally traded Brent, in part because of pipeline constraints.
The strain on pipeline capacity is analysed in a report published on Tuesday by a campaign group called Oil Change International, with backing from leading North American environmental groups including the Sierra Club, the Natural Resources Defense Council, and 350.org.
It argues that protests such as the People’s Climate March in New York last year have succeeded in raising the pressure on politicians to block proposed pipelines when they would once have waved them through.
The environmental groups are urging the new Liberal government of Justin Trudeau to reverse his stated support for some pipelines, including Keystone XL, to put a brake on oil development in Alberta.
From January to July, 16 Canadian oil sands projects were delayed or cancelled, according to Peter Tertzakian of ARC Financial in Calgary.
Greg Muttitt of Oil Change said his analysis suggested that while the plunge in oil prices was certainly an important factor in project cancellation, pipeline problems were also significant.
“Some projects could still have been viable if there had been pipelines,” said Mr Muttitt. “It was the lack of pipelines that tipped them over the edge.”
The CAPP agrees that pipeline constraints have become a significant obstacle to production growth, but draws the opposite conclusion on a policy response, advocating the need for new pipelines.
Beth Lau, manager of oil supply and transportation at the CAPP, said the pipelines were now “at full capacity”, although use could vary from day to day. She added that there were several different plans that would offer new routes to market for Alberta’s oil, including Transcanada’s Energy East project to use an old gas pipeline to send crude to the dockside in eastern Canada, and Enbridge’s Northern gateway, a proposed new oil pipeline to the west coast.
However, the planned pipelines by TransCanada and Enbridge have faced difficulties. TransCanada has been battling to overcome scepticism about its proposed pipeline in Quebec, a province that the supply line needs to cross. Northern Gateway faces opposition from some indigenous First Nations native communities along its planned route.
Anticipating a lack of space on pipelines out of Alberta, many companies have been booking or building new capacity for rail transport of oil, but that is a costly option, and particularly unattractive when crude prices are weak.
Sandy Fielden of RBN Energy, an analysis firm, said: “When oil prices are already low, you’ve effectively shot yourself in the foot if you use rail.”
Being able to send more oil to the sea from landlocked Alberta is a top priority for the industry, because it would allow producers to sell anywhere around the world.
“If markets are working efficiently, that will maximise the value of our reserves,” Ms Lau said.

Qatar, Canada discus trade ties”

Qatar could be new ally in Arab world for Canada



Iran sanctions lifted by Canada, but Justin Trudeau still faces 'delicate dance”, Φεβρουάριος 2016
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's sweeping sanctions relief for Iran will be a boon for Canadian businesses, but thawing relations between the two countries is not without risks for the Liberal government, say experts.

“Justin Trudeau : Alberta VS Quebec



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