Πολύ ενδιαφέρον άρθρο της Wikipedia για τον Earl Browder, τον αρχηγό (Γενικό Γραμματέα) του Αμερικανικού Κομμουνιστικού Κόμματος, ο οποίος ήταν επισήμως σχεδόν ο εκπρόσωπος των Σοβιετικών στις ΗΠΑ. Εκείνη την εποχή όλα τα Κομμουνιστικά Κόμματα ήταν δορυφόροι των Σοβιετικών. Ενώ μετά άλλοι ήταν δορυφόροι των Σοβιετικών, άλλοι των Κινέζων, άλλοι ήταν Ευρωκομμουνιστές (Γιουγκοσλαβία, Ρουμανία, Τσεχοσλοβακία) κλπ.
Ο Earl Broader και το Αμερικανικό Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα εξέδιδαν την δεκαετία του 30 άφθονο υλικό κατά των Ναζί, και πίεζαν την Αμερικανική κυβέρνηση να συνεργαστεί με τους Σοβιετικούς. Εκείνη την εποχή στην Αγγλία, και στην Γαλλία και στις ΗΠΑ υπήρχε το ερώτημα αν θα έπρεπε να συνεργαστούν με τους Σοβιετικούς εναντίον του Χίτλερ ή το αντίθετο, ή αν θα έπρεπε να μείνουν ουδέτεροι.
Όταν τελικά οι Κομμουνιστές και οι Ναζί συμμάχησαν το 1939, το Αμερικανικό Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα σταμάτησε τις επιθέσεις εναντίον των Ναζί, και άρχισε να επιτίθεται στην Αγγλία και την Γαλλία, απαιτώντας από την Αμερικανική κυβέρνηση να μην μπει στον πόλεμο για να τις βοηθήσει. Οι Αμερικανοί τότε φυλάκισαν τον Browder.
Όταν όμως ο Χίτλερ εισέβαλε στην Ρωσία το 1941, και οι Αμερικανοί συμμάχησαν με τους Σοβιετικούς, τον αποφυλάκισαν και άρχισε εκ νέου τις επιθέσεις εναντίον του Χίτλερ αναδεικνύοντας τα εγκλήματα του και ζητώντας από τους Αμερικανούς να κινητοποιηθούν εναντίον του Χίτλερ.
Όταν τελείωσε ο πόλεμος οι Αμερικανοί δεν ξαναφυλάκισαν τον Broader, αλλά ούτε και κατάφερε να αποκτήσει μεγάλη επιρροή.
Ο Browder είχε μάλιστα επιτεθεί στον επίσης Κομμουνιστή Τσάρλι Τσάπλιν, λέγοντας ότι θα έπρεπε να κάνει ταινίες για τους μπουρζουάδες καπιταλιστές, όταν ο τελευταίος το 1940 έκανε το έργο “Ο Τελευταίος Δικτάτορας” για να διακωμωδήσει τον Χίτλερ. Βλέπε Frontpage Mag “NOTHING TO DO WITH THIS MOVIE”.
Το 1940 οι ΗΠΑ δεν είχαν ακόμη μπει στον πόλεμο, μπήκαν όταν οι σύμμαχοι των Ναζί οι Ιάπωνες τους χτύπησαν στον Ειρηνικό, και όπως θα διαβάσετε στο άρθρο ο Αμερικανός Υπουργός Εξωτερικών ζήτησε συγνώμη από τον Γερμανό Υπουργό Εξωτερικών λέγοντας ότι η κυβέρνηση των ΗΠΑ δεν είχε καμία σχέση με την παραγωγή της ταινίας του Τσάρλι Τσάπλιν, κάτι που πολύ πιθανόν να ήταν και αλήθεια.
“NOTHING TO DO WITH THIS MOVIE”
“The notion that
Germany or Russia have aggressive designs on the
is laughable,” said Communist Party leader Earl Browder. “Chaplin should make a
movie about decadent bourgeois capitalist democracies before they land in the
ash dump of history.” United States
1η, 2η, 3η, 4η, 5η, 6η Παράγραφος
Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891 – June 27, 1973) was an American political activist, functionary and leader of the Communist Party USA(CPUSA). Browder is best remembered as the General Secretary of the CPUSA during the 1930s and first half of the 1940s.
During World War I, Browder served time in federal prison as a conscientious objector to conscription and the war. Upon his release, Browder became an active member of the American Communist movement, soon working as an organizer on behalf of the Communist International and its Red International of Labor Unions in China and the Pacific region.
In 1930, following the removal of a rival political faction from leadership, Browder was made General Secretary of the CPUSA. For the next 15 years thereafter Browder was the most recognizable public figure associated with American Communism, authoring dozens of pamphlets and books, making numerous public speeches before sometimes vast audiences, and twice running for President of the United States. Browder also took part in clandestine activities on behalf of Soviet intelligence in
during his period of party
leadership, placing those who sought to convey sensitive information to the
party into contact with Soviet intelligence. America
In the wake of public outrage over the 1939 Nazi-Soviet pact, Browder was indicted for passport fraud. He was convicted of two counts early in 1940 and sentenced to four years in prison, remaining free for a time on appeal. In the spring of 1942 the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the sentence and Browder began what proved to be a 14-month stint in federal prison. Browder was subsequently released in 1943 as a gesture towards wartime unity.
Browder was a staunch adherent of close cooperation between the
United States and the Soviet Union during World War II and envisioned continued
cooperation between these two military powers in the postwar years. Coming to
see the role of American Communists to be that of an organized pressure group within a broad governing coalition,
in 1944 he directed the transformation of the CPUSA into a "Communist
Political Association." However, following the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt,
a Cold War and internal red scare quickly sprouted up.
Browder was expelled from the re-established Communist Party early in 1946, due
largely to a refusal to modify these views to accord with changing political
realities and their associated ideological demands.
Browder lived out the rest of his life in relative obscurity at his home in Yonkers, New York, attempting with little success to influence American government policy and public opinion as the author of numerous books and pamphlets.
The Nazis-Soviet Pact
European geopolitics were fundamentally altered on August 23, 1939, when Foreign Ministers of the
and Nazi Germany formally signed a mutual non-aggression treaty known
to history as the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
The agreement, which included secret protocols providing for the invasion and division of
Poland. USSR Germany's
September 1 invasion of Poland brought an
immediate response from its treaty partners France and Great Britain, who declared war on on
September 3. World War II had
The Soviet Union invaded Eastern Poland on September 17, its path cleared by the lack of British and French military activity against the Nazis in Western Poland and a desire to build a cordon against German military strength west of the Soviet Union's national border. Then the Stalin regime went still further, however, making its nonaggression pact into a de facto Friendship Pact by signing a joint statement with the Germans characterizing the partition of Poland as a fait accompli, calling for an end to hostilities, and placing the onus for any escalation of the European conflict on the governments of Great Britain and France.
Virtually overnight the political lines of the Communist parties of the world shifted. What were formerly the greatest cheerleaders for collective security against the danger of
now became staunch opponents of American intervention in the European military
situation — reflective of the newly revised needs of Soviet foreign policy. All
anti-fascist propaganda was immediately terminated, overt criticism of German
action was minimized, the culpability of the governments of Germany France and were exaggerated. Claims were made by Browder's CPUSA that
machinations were afoot among Hitler's foes to escalate the ongoing European
conflict into a counterrevolutionary offensive against the Britain . USSR
The result of the sudden shift of the party line caused shock and confusion among many members of the Communist Party USA, a goodly number of whom had joined during the period of the Popular Front against fascism. Browder declared at one Philadelphia rally that only "a dozen or so" had left the CPUSA over the change of line; in actuality the party's ranks fell by 15% between 1939 and 1940 and recruitment of new members in 1940 fell by 75% over 1938 levels. The public image of the
as a main
bulwark against fascism and claims of the CPUSA as an indigenous radical
organization were severely undermined. USSR
Moreover, the CPUSA's new propaganda offensive against American participation in the so-called "Imperialist War" brought it into political conflict with the
Roosevelt administration, which had begun
to question the wisdom of isolationism. In the summer of 1939 Texas Congressman Martin Dies, Jr., chairman of the House Special Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC),
learned that the U.S. Department of
Justice had begun to investigate old charges that Earl Browder
had travelled abroad under assumed names, making use of false documents, during
the 1920s.Dies proceeded to subpoena Browder to appear
before the committee to give testimony on the matter. On September 5, 1939, just days after
the German invasion of ,
Browder made his appearance before HUAC, providing exhaustive testimony over
the course of two days. Poland
Midway through the first day of testimony Browder was asked in passing whether he had ever travelled abroad under a false passport. Before party attorney Joseph Brodsky could stop him, Browder answered, "I have." Although he subsequently refused to answer follow-up questions about the matter, citing the protection against self-incrimination offered by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the damage caused by Browder's admission under oath had been done. Conservative politicians such as Congressman J. Parnell Thomas of New Jerseyattempted to make political hay by intimating that the Roosevelt administration had coddled the country's leading Communist, calling Browder "swaggering [and] apparently untouchable" despite being Stalin's "number one stooge in this country."
With popular feeling against Communism raging in the wake of European events and political heat rising in
the Justice Department moved to action. On October 23 a federal grand jury in Washington indicted Earl
Browder for passport fraud, a felony. The formal charge against him specified
that Browder had made multiple returns to the Manhattan using a passport
bearing his own name, but which had been obtained on the basis of a falsely
sworn statement. Indictments of CPUSA treasurer Wiliam
Wiener and Young Communist
League leader Harry Gannes on passport charges followed in
December and the Communist Party sent several of its top leaders into hiding in
anticipation of a broader crackdown. United States
On January 17, 1940, Browder's trial for passport fraud began at federal court in
. Browder faced a two-count indictment,
upon which conviction would have carried a maximum sentence of 10 years in
prison and a $4,000 fine. Owing to expiration of the statute of limitations on
earlier passport offenses, the government found itself of only being able to
prosecute Browder on the basis of his use of his passport during the years 1937
and 1938. To aid dramatic effect, recently
convicted Soviet spy Nicholas Dozenberg was
placed on the stand to identify Browder's photograph on papers obtained in
Dozenberg's name. After the court refused a long series of
motions by Browder's attorney, G. Gordon Battle, Browder took control of his
own defense in the courtroom, reminding jurors that the trial did not concern
false documents from the distant past and proclaimed that the actual charges
against him were based upon a "web of technicalities." New York City
Jury deliberations in the Browder case lasted less than an hour, with a guilty verdict returned. Browder was sentenced to 4 years in prison and a $2,000 fine — a result less than the maximum but in excess of sentences given to others in similar circumstances. The conviction was unanimously affirmed on appeal on June 24, 1940, and the Supreme Court concurred on February 17, 1941. On March 25, 1941, Browder surrendered to
marshals, who transported him by rail to the Atlanta
Federal Penitentiary. U.S.
Two days later, with his face masked behind a pillowcase to hinder photographers, Earl Browder was led into the penitentiary to begin serving his four-year term. He would not emerge again for 14 months.